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Additional info for A Kinetic Hypothesis to Explain the Function of Electrons in the Chemical Combination of Atoms(en)(5

Sample text

The glass is worked by heating and blowing in much the same way as described in the preceding section except that blowing is carried out by a blowing tube attached to one or other of the two tubes. In making fixedjoints such as this it is undesirable to overheat the glass so that it becomes very liquid, since it flows under gravity. This flow should be kept to a minimum since it leads to uneven wall thickness. The effects of this flow under gravity can be mitigated in a number of ways. If the tubing being worked is vertical it may be drawn down a little just below the join to reduce the wall thickness in this region; then, as the glass flows, this thin section will thicken so that a uniform wall thickness is achieved.

This is repeated until the glass has been worked sufficiently for a good joint to be obtained and it should then be annealed. The above procedure can be simplified in two ways. First, it is not necessary to swing the cross-piece in the flame during the preliminary heating before joining the tubes, although this operation accustoms 66 (2) The Use ofa Hand Torch A casual study of any laboratory vacuum apparatus will show how commonly T-joints must be made with either one or both of the tubes clamped.

Some workers, however, prefer to blow through the cross-piece. ( F FIGURE 24. T -joints The side arm is taken in the right hand and the cross-piece in the left and they are held in the flame so that the end of the side arm, and the area just around the hole in the cross-piece, are heated. This is done by directing the flame almost perpendicular to the side arm and swinging both pieces of glass through an angle of about 200° (FIGURE 24). These motions should be synchronized in order to obtain uniform heating.

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A Kinetic Hypothesis to Explain the Function of Electrons in the Chemical Combination of Atoms(en)(5 by Noyes W. A.

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