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By Dale Jacquette

This number of newly comissioned essays by way of overseas individuals deals a consultant review of an important advancements in modern philosophical logic.

  • Presents controversies in philosophical implications and purposes of formal symbolic logic.
  • Surveys significant traits and provides unique insights.

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And tr. by A. Vos Jaczn. ), New Synthese Historical Library, vol. 42 (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1994). Mikko Yrjönsauuri’s Helsinki dissertation Obligationes – 14th Century Logic of Disputational Duties, in: Acta Philosopphica Fennica, 55 (1994), summarizes much of what is known about the theory of obligations. G. E. Hughes, John Buridan on Self-Reference (Cambridge University Press, 1982) is a perfect example of a medieval treatment of logical paradoxes. There are two (English language) journals devoted to medieval philosophy, namely Vivarium and Medieval Philosophy and Theology.

If every set of ideas [Vorstellungen] whose substitution for i, j, . . makes all of A, B, C, D, . . true also makes M, N, O, . . true. ’ It was generally understood, and often stated, that in a valid deductive argument, the conclusion follows of necessity from the premises (cf. Aristotle, Prior Analytics 24b18). Bolzano’s definition, closely akin to that given a century later by Alfred Tarski, was meant to explain the nature of this necessity. If the variable elements i, j, . . include all extralogical terms, then the consequence is said to be logical, as in a valid categorical syllogism.

If we consider the true propositions [Man is a sort] and [Man is a word] the term man has moved from predicate to subject position. In the proposition [Man is a word] it has material supposition, because it stands for the word and not the person whence the modern use of quotation-marks is superfluous. ’ The medieval terminology material and formal supposition probably derives from the fact that, under the influence of Aristotle’s theory of hylemorphism, the subject S is seen as the matter of the categorical [S is P]-proposition, and the predicate is its form.

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A Companion to Philosophical Logic by Dale Jacquette

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